Occupational Paraquat and Glyphosate Exposure May Decline Renal Functions among Rural Farming Communities in Sri Lanka

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dc.contributor.author Abdul, K. S. M.
dc.contributor.author De Silva, P. Mangala C. S.
dc.contributor.author Ekanayake, E. M. D. V.
dc.contributor.author Thakshila, W. A. K. G.
dc.contributor.author Gunarathna, S. D.
dc.contributor.author Gunasekara, T. D. K. S. C.
dc.contributor.author Jayasinghe, S. S.
dc.contributor.author Asanthi, H. B.
dc.contributor.author Chandana, E. P. S.
dc.contributor.author Chaminda, G. G. T.
dc.contributor.author Siribaddana, S. H.
dc.contributor.author Jayasundara, N.
dc.date.accessioned 2022-09-16T08:14:02Z
dc.date.available 2022-09-16T08:14:02Z
dc.date.issued 2021-03-22
dc.identifier.citation Abdul, K.S.M.; De Silva, P.M.C.S.; Ekanayake, E.M.D.V.; Thakshila, W.A.K.G.; Gunarathna, S.D.; Gunasekara, T.D.K.S.C.; Jayasinghe, S.S.; Asanthi, H.B.; Chandana, E.P.S.; Chaminda, G.G.T.; Siribaddana, S.H.; Jayasundara, N. Occupational Paraquat and Glyphosate Exposure May Decline Renal Functions among Rural Farming Communities in Sri Lanka. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3278. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063278 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://ir.lib.ruh.ac.lk/xmlui/handle/iruor/8436
dc.description.abstract Extensive use of herbicides is common among rural agricultural workers in Sri Lanka. Recent studies have postulated their role in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). Paraquat and glyphosate are leading herbicides used by sugarcane farmers (SF), hence occupational exposure is inevitable. This study examined the expression of urinary paraquat, glyphosate and biomarkers among residential SF in CKDu emerging regions, Warunagama (WA) and Rahathangama (RH), in the Uva Province with non-endemic Matara (MA) in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Urinary glyphosate, Paraquat, kidney injury molecule -1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and β2-microglobulin (B2M) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Urinary creatinine, microalbumin, serum creatinine (SCr), serum cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) were also assessed. Generally, herbicide residues and kidney injury biomarkers were higher in SF compared to the non-endemic MA. Creatinine-adjusted urinary glyphosate and paraquat levels were significantly higher in WA compared to MA. ACR in RH (median 14.9; IQR 5.4–393.1 mg/g) and WA (23.7; 11.5–64.6) was significantly higher than MA (4.3; 2.2–6.7). This study reports 39 individuals with impaired kidney function among SF in Sri Lanka for the first time. Urinary NGAL levels were significantly higher in both WA (median 2.14; IQR 1.28–6.15 ng/mg Cr) and RH (3.09; 1.15–9.09) compared to MA (1.28; 0.56–2.81). However, urinary KIM-1 levels in RH (3.2; 1.29–106.1 ng/g Cr) and WA (3.6; 1.94–115.1) were not significantly higher in MA (1.74; 0.76–116.9). Urinary NGAL (r = 0.493), eGFR (r = −0.147) and ACR (r = 0.171) significantly correlated with urinary glyphosate, but not with urinary paraquat levels. Urinary KIM-1 levels did not correlate with either urinary glyphosate or paraquat, while urinary B2M and serum cystatin C levels showed significant correlation with urinary glyphosate levels. The current study reports higher urinary herbicide levels among sugarcane farmers in WA and RH, and that is potentially linked to the subsequent decline in kidney function, as indicated by ACR, eGFR, and NGAL. We posit that these indicators may serve as markers to detect renal injury among herbicide-exposed SF in Rural Sri Lanka. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher MDPI en_US
dc.subject herbicides en_US
dc.subject glyphosate en_US
dc.subject biomarkers en_US
dc.subject farmers en_US
dc.subject chronic kidney disease en_US
dc.subject CINAC en_US
dc.subject Sri Lanka en_US
dc.title Occupational Paraquat and Glyphosate Exposure May Decline Renal Functions among Rural Farming Communities in Sri Lanka en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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